Kia ora koutou
Welcome to the second CaDDANZ newsletter for 2019.
This is the first newsletter since the murderous attacks on Muslim people that took place on the 15th of March in Christchurch. The violence that occurred that day and the racist and hateful ideologies of the perpetrator are terrible manifestations of the most pressing challenges facing Aotearoa/New Zealand. The event also raises stark questions about the core focus of a project like CaDDANZ that seeks to address the value of diversity, and highlights the imperative of a more critical focus on racism and the physical, social and symbolic violence that it works through.
There have been a wide range of responses since the attacks, including examples of care, critical commentaries and calls to action but also ongoing evidence of the racism that underpinned the attacks. One initiative that recognises the need for action and the importance of developing more inclusivity is the Inclusive Aotearoa Collective led by Anjum Rahman of the Islamic Women’s Council. The collective, which is currently seeking volunteers, aims to develop a national strategy for fighting discrimination. Download the full proposal or look at the media coverage for more information.
Some of the CaDDANZ research team have contributed to debate and action around the March 15th attacks and their implications for Aotearoa/New Zealand. Faisal Al-Asaad in particular, who has for a number of years been actively working amongst Muslim communities alongside his research on race and colonialism, has provided thought provoking contributions and calls to action: ‘Today, we mourn. Tomorrow, we organise’ and ‘Post-Massacre Reality: Why We Shouldn't Move On’. Paul Spoonley also commented on the need ‘to end New Zealand’s innocence about right-wing terrorism’. The Aotearoa Migration Research Network organised a roundtable discussion on racism and Countering Racism in Academia. The Pathways 2019 conference, which we also discuss in this newsletter, does not shy away from the issues of racism and seeks participation from across community, policy and academia to advance our understandings and responses to racism, difference and inequality.
In this newsletter we highlight the first two project briefs from CaDDANZ researchers Natalie Jackson and Lars Brabyn, and Michael Cameron. The briefs provide engaging overviews of key findings from research projects being undertaken within CaDDANZ and over the course of 2019 and 2020 several more briefs will be published. There have also been a range of notable presentations by CaDDANZ researchers in recent months, including a special session on diversity and a plenary panel on population change at the Population Association of New Zealand conference; a keynote by Tahu Kukutai at the New Zealand Planners Institute that addressed regional divergence with a particular focus on its implications for Te Ao Māori; and seminar presentations at the Universities of Waikato, Sussex and Oxford. The newsletter also includes information on working papers published in connection with CaDDANZ and a new book exploring the Intersections of Inequality, Migration and Diversification in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
Please keep a note of the Pathways 2019 conference, which will be held on the 19th and 20th of November at Massey University’s Albany campus Auckland. The conference addresses the theme of Diversities of Migration: racism, difference and inequalities. We have an exciting line-up of keynote speakers confirmed including Melinda Webber (University of Auckland), Rachel Simon-Kumar (University of Auckland), Shanthi Robertson (Western Sydney University), and Emily Beausoleil (Victoria University of Wellington).
As always, should you wish to contact us about the research we are undertaking or have questions about how we can work with you or your organisation going forward please do not hesitate to send an email to Renae Dixon email@example.com or Julie Taylor firstname.lastname@example.org.
In this newsletter we profile the first two project briefs:
In CaDDANZ Brief #1 Natalie Jackson and Lars Brabyn outline their work developing the New Zealand Atlas of Population Change. The Atlas visually communicates the interaction and population diversity resulting from the three main components of population change – migration, natural change (births minus deaths), and population ageing. Available online (see http://socialatlas.waikato.ac.nz/) will be an excellent tool for researchers, planners and the general public seeking to explore the dynamic space of population change in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
CaDDANZ Brief #2 has been prepared by Michael Cameron to address the The Cultural Generation Gap in NZ Regions. In this brief, Michael outlines Aotearoa/New Zealand’s changing ethnic geography using census data from 2001 to 2013. He explores the “cultural generation gap”, which provides insight into the future projections of current younger diverse age cohorts and older cohorts that are more ethnically homogenous as well as what this means for future population makeup.
Recent Presentations from CaDDANZ
Regional divergence and mana Māori: Reflections from a Māori demographer
Tahu Kukutai Keynote address: New Zealand Planners Institute
Regional differences in population and economy are nothing new in Aotearoa New Zealand; indeed the distinctiveness of our regions is part and parcel of this country’s imagined national identity. But when does regional difference tip over into regional divergence? What are the implications for social cohesion and regional sustainability? And what can be learnt from the experiences and wisdom of hapū and iwi who have enduring, intergenerational bonds to their rohe, but whose interests and values are often marginalised in mainstream planning approaches? In this talk Tahu sketches out how structural changes in the form of population ageing, migration-driven ethnic composition change, inequality and employment/skills supply are coming together to create regional divergence. I also consider some of major demographic changes facing Te Ao Māori in the context of regional divergence and some of the opportunities for engaging mana whenua in reshaping the regions.
Provisional migration and settler colonialism in Aotearoa/New Zealand
Francis Collins Oxford University, School of Geography and the Environment / Sussex University, Centre for Migration Research
Recent transformations in migration policy and practice in Anglophone settler colonies (Aotearoa/New Zealand, Australia and Canada) have been characterised by a purportedly post-racial regime where there are growing numbers of migrants granted temporary entry and status (especially for study and work) that substantially exceed those granted permanent rights of residence. This shift towards “provisional migration” regimes marks a substantial departure from the dominant 20th century form of racial exclusionary settlement migration that was pivotal to the foundation and ongoing character of settler colonialism. In this seminar presentation Francis explores the relationship between the management of migration as provisional and the reconfiguration of settler colonialism’s projects in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
Sub-national stochastic ethnic population projections using cohort change ratios – an application to New Zealand Michael Cameron NIDEA Seminar Series, University of Waikato
Developing a better understanding of future ethnic diversity, particularly at the sub-national level, is important. In this seminar, Michael reported on joint work with Jacques Poot (VU Amsterdam) that extends earlier work employing a modified Hamilton-Perry projection method to data on small ethnic groups in New Zealand at the subnational level. Specifically, they project group populations at the sub-national level for 16 regions for all groups with a minimum base population of 500. A stochastic element is introduced into the projections by: (1) using the variation in the time series of cohort change ratios over several inter-Censal periods; and (2) using regression methods based on the errors in projections excluding the most recent inter-Censal period. They found that the method performs reasonably well, and where point forecast results seem most unrealistic, those results tend to have the highest associated uncertainty.
Spatially modelling net migration within NZ's cities and towns Lars Brabyn NIDEA Seminar Series, University of Waikato
Population change can have a substantial impact on communities, both when there is decline and growth, and understanding this change can help with population forecasting and reduced impacts through associated planning. This presentation argues that net migration is a significant component of this change and compared to natural change is difficult to model and predict. Using data from every population census between 1976 and 2013, the net migration by age groups for 275 cities and towns was calculated by subtracting the natural change from the total population change. These age-specific records of net migration were combined with GIS data that describes the employment opportunities, lifestyle (landscape and climate), and access to essential services (hospitals, education, airports) for each of these urban places. This net migration and GIS data was then used to develop and test a model that predicts net migration for each urban place. A mix of machine learning (random forest decision tree modelling) and Pearson’s r were used to identify the most important determinants of net migration. Age is an important factor in determining which variables have the most influence. Younger people (15-24) are moving to more populated places and close to tertiary education facilities. People approaching retirement have a preference for lifestyle drivers, such as warm temperatures and coastal towns, as well as access to international airports and tertiary hospitals.
Population Association of New Zealand
The CaDDANZ team presented a total of eleven presentations at the recent Population Association of New Zealand conference held in Wellington on 20-21st June. Several presentations were organised under the theme “Capturing the Diversity Dividend? Diversity Matters in Aotearoa New Zealand”, including presentations addressing "Whanaungatanga as an alternative to state managed multiculturalism" (Arama Rata and Faisal Al-Asaad) through to "Diversity as a selling point in urban development projects in Auckland" (Jessica Terruhn). Papers presented in the session will form part of a special issue of the New Zealand Population Review due out in December 2019. In addition, Natalie Jackson and Francis Collins also joined Tze Ming Mok for a plenary panel addressing "Understanding New Zealand’s diverse population in the 21st Century: Opportunities and challenges" . Presentations and photos from the conference are available on the PANZ website (https://population.org.nz/) and Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/populationnz) respectively.
Intersections of inequality, migration and diversification Rachel Simon-Kumar, Francis L Collins, Wardlow Friesen (eds.)
Along with Rachel Simon-Kumar and Wardlow Friesen (both University of Auckland), CaDDANZ team member Francis Collins is the co-editor of a new book that explores the ways in which migration and diversification intersect with inequality. The book examines the relationship between migration, diversification and inequality in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The authors advance a view of migration as a diversifying force, arguing that it is necessary to grapple with the intersection of group identities, state policy and economic opportunities as part of the formation of inequalities that have deep historical legacies and substantial future implications. Exploring evidence for inequality amongst migrant populations, the book also addresses the role of multicultural politics and migration policy in entrenching inequalities, and the consequences of migrant inequalities for political participation, youth development and urban life. The book is available in both e-book and hardback versions from Palgrave: https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783030190989.
Media representations of immigration and ethnic diversity in the New Zealand Herald Trudie Cain and Sandy Lee
This report is concerned with the way the media, and the New Zealand Herald in particular, frame stories about immigration and ethnic diversity. 179 New Zealand Herald articles published between 1 June 2016 and 30 June 2017, and featuring the key words ‘ethnic diversity’ and/or ‘immigration’ were analysed to identify dominant discursive themes. Three major themes were identified: the economic benefit of migration; the burden or cost of immigration on infrastructure, services and housing; and fraud and exploitation. Click here for full articleRe-definition of social identity among Iranian migrant females in New Zealand Parisa Kooshesh
Although Iran is considered an Islamic country, and most Iranian migrants in New Zealand are Muslims and/or cultural Muslims, female Iranian migrants are especially prone to constructing secular social identities for themselves after leaving Iran. These women typically resist being perceived or categorised as Muslims. In this paper, Parisa explores the ways that Iranian women redefine their post-migration social identities, specifically in terms of their day-to-day interactions with New Zealanders. She also investigates the strategies these women adopt for shifting the centre of their identity from its more controversial (Islam-related) aspects, to its less controversial and more personalised aspects. To read the full working paper click here
Aotearoa Migration Research Network
The Aotearoa Migration Research Network seeks to support social science research that addresses the diversity of issues involved in moving in the world: the drivers and barriers to migration, the role of borders and state control, the lives, identities and aspirations of migrants, the role of migration in communities and economies and the emergence of diverse, multicultural and transnational social formations.
The network runs a regular seminar series which provides a forum for established and emerging researchers as well as representatives of migrant communities, and policy makers and practitioners working with migrants to share insights from new research and create dialogue.
To keep up with migration research news and upcoming seminars, please join the network’s facebook group:https://www.facebook.com/groups/2222601944730497/.
You will be able to join these seminars from your computer via Zoom video conferencing link.
The next seminar will be "Immigrant and refugee families constructing pathways to belonging through early childhood education" presented by Linda Mitchell, Raella Kahuroa and Elaine Khoo from the University of Waikato. This network is co-convened by Dr Jessica Terruhn who works as a Senior Researcher on the CaDDANZ research team at Massey University in Auckland, and Dr Shemana Cassim who is a Research Fellow at the University of Waikato.
Pathways, Diversity and Inclusion Conference 2019
Save the date
The next Pathways conference is to be held in Auckland 19th - 20th November 2019. As in previous years, there will be an exciting line up of presenters who will speak to the theme of "Diversities of Migration: Racism, Difference and Inequalities". Keynote speakers include: Shanthi Robertson, Melinda Webber, Rachel Simon-Kumar and Emily Beausoleil covering a range of topics including: Racism and settler colonialism, Listening as ethical practice, The 'diversity frame' and Differences and inequalities