March  2020

Dear CSE followers,

we collected for you some doctoral thesis discussed during the last year. We wish to draw your attention to important events  planned for 2020 and to remind you about some upcoming deadlines.
We invite you to check regularly our website to keep informed also on career possibilities in the Cryogenics and related field.

And if you are not a member yet, consider joining the CSE community!


PhD Thesis in 2019


J. Liberadzka, “Heat transfer across dielectric-metallic interfaces and thin layers at low and ultra-low temperatures”, 24 January 2019, University of Twente
Supervisor: H.J.M. ter Brake, Co-supervisor: Dr.rer.nat. T. Köttig
Graduation Committee members: Prof. dr. ing. B. van Eijk, H.H.J. ten Kate, Prof.dr.rer.nat. R. Nawrodt, T.H. Oosterkamp
Special expert: Dr. G. Vermeulen
Short abstract:
The goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter within 1 % precision. In the framework of this project, a thermalisation strategy for a set of ultra-cold electrodes forming a Penning trap for antimatter has been investigated.
Two sandwich setups have been analysed. The investigation of the first sandwich consisting of copper, indium and sapphire has demonstrated the importance of the oxide layers on the interface thermal resistance. An important conclusion has been drawn that with indium in the normal conducting state the compression force can be removed without changing the total thermal resistivity of the sandwich. The total thermal resistivity of the second setup with additional thin layers of gold and titanium shows, that the sputtering of titanium and the mechanism of its
adhesion to sapphire can have a significant influence on the interface thermal resistivity. The low temperature and ultra-low temperature thermal diffusivity of the sandwich has also been measured. The results are consistent with respect to the built model over the whole temperature range.
The new electrode has been designed and manufactured. A new way of clamping provides more uniform pressure distribution on the bottom surface of the electrode and increases the chances for a formation of a robust indium bond. The thermal performance of the electrode has been tested in steady state and transient conditions and it proved to be over five times higher than the performance of the old design.

Thomas Kochenburger, "Kryogene Gemischkältekreisläufe für Hochtemperatursupraleiter-Anwendungen.", Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 2019.
ISBN: 978-3-8439-3987-4.
Remark: The PhD thesis is written in German language and is only available as a hardcopy.
High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) have already demonstrated their capabilities in cables, busbars, electric motors, generators and transformers in several pilot projects. Due to the lack of closed-cycle cooling processes in the relevant cooling capacity range of some kW, they usually have to be cooled by vacuum evaporation of liquid nitrogen at 65-77 K in open cycles.
Cryogenic Mixed Refrigerant Cycles (CMRCs), that are currently used for large-scale LNG production, allow efficient, cost-effective and reliable cooling in the temperature range of approximately 80-150 K with almost unlimited scalability. To take advantage of closed-cycle CMRC cooling processes for HTS applications, their cooling temperatures must be reduced, which has previously been associated with a significant efficiency drop. For safety reasons, non-flammable refrigerant mixtures are also preferred to the commonly used nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures. This work aims to contribute to the tackling of these challenges.
At first, suitable components for wide-boiling, non-flammable refrigerant mixtures with a low freezing point are identified. In addition to the previously used fluorinated aliphatic refrigerants, the refrigerant R1234yf, which has only been available for several years, is also considered as a new possible mixture component. Based on an overview of previous work, a two-stage cooling process is devised for HTS applications. The first stage is distinguished by the use of a non-flammable refrigerant mixture, the second stage by a significantly increased pressure level to raise efficiency and the use of oxygen to reduce the freezing point. A modified Peng-Robinson equation of state is chosen for the use in calculations during the later process design, and fitted to thermophysical pure substance data and binary phase equilibrium data from the literature to reproduce the phase behaviour. Since no literature data exist for some binary systems at low temperature, own phase equilibria measurements were conducted.
To this end, an existing setup was first modified to allow operation with the selected refrigerants in compliance with process and safety requirements. Phase equilibrium measurements were then made in binary mixtures of R1234yf with R14, R23, R218, N2 and Ar in the temperature range of 153-273 K and at pressures up to 50 bar.
In the process simulation part of the work, the mixture compositions and process parameters are defined and optimized in Aspen Plus for maximum process efficiency in each case. On the basis of a detailed examination of the two stages of the developed cooling process, solutions for two HTS cooling scenarios are developed and evaluated . The efficiencies achieved are significantly higher than in previous CMRC processes and comparable to those of other cooling technologies for the temperature range under consideration. Also, the use of R1234yf as a high-boiling mixture component proves to be advantageous compared to the alternative R218. A CMRC test stand was set up and put into operation to validate the process simulation. Initial measurement results with three simple mixtures are in excellent agreement with the process calculations in Aspen Plus, which suggests a high predictive quality of the modeling. The experimental validation of the complete cooling process was not possible in the scope of this work, but is being pursued in follow-up projects.



The Cryogenics Society of Europe (CSE) and the High-Energy Physics network (HEPTech) in collaboration with the University of Twente (UT) organizes the 2020 European Cryogenics Days on May 24th - 26th on the beautiful campus of the University in Enschede, The Netherlands.                                      
The ECD2020 will consist of the annual meeting of the Cryogenics Society of Europe on Monday May 25th followed by invited talks on all aspects of cryogenics, an industrial exhibition, a visit to UT laboratories including cryogenic facilities, and social events. Ample time will be provided for one-on-one meetings. In addition to these two days, there will be a young-researchers program on Sunday May 24th.

Participation including social events is free of charge for members of the CSE. Non-members need to contribute a minor fee of 50 euros. Corporate members of the CSE will have a reduced exhibitor fee.

Additional details including registration information are available and continuously updated on the CSE website of the event.

Registration is now open!



   Pictures from past events:




The Course is organized by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Technical University of Dresden (TUD) in Germany, the Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering of the Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (WUST) in Poland and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) of Trondheim in Norway.

Lecturers are members of the organizing universities and a number of invited external experts.
In addition to the lessons, the program of the ECC includes technical excursions, tutorials and demonstrations. The weekends are foreseen mainly for social activities and travel.
The course will finish with two written examinations concerning the two main subjects (cryogenics, fundamentals and processes).

The ECC will begin on the 10th of August and extend over the following three weeks. It is open to all graduate and doctoral students. Due to the limited capacity interested students should apply for participating before the end of April.
Detailed information about the application process and the program of the course may be found on the flyer or at the dedicated webpage.


Important Deadlines 




The 8th Space European Workshop is part of a series of workshops organizied by ESA and focused on developments related to on-going and future cryogenic space missions.
Registration is now open. The participation to the workshop is free of charge, but the places are limited. Hurry up if you wish to attend the event.
Deadline for abstract submission if March 20th, 2020.

The 2020 Applied Superconductivity Conference is the foremost gathering point for the electronics, large scale, and materials fields within the applied superconductivity community.
Deadline for exhibit boot registration is March 16th, 2020.

The 28th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference 2020 will be held in China from August 31th to September the 4th. Have a look at the flyer for a summary of the relevant information. Registration is open!
Deadline for abstract submission is March 31st, 2020.

The 29th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT29) aims at promoting the exchange of information among the members of the international scientific community active in the field of Low Temperatures Physics.
Abstracts must be submitted until the 10th of April 2020.
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7th International Conference on Superconductivity and Magnetism
April 19-25, 2020, Bodrum, Turkey

International Cryocooler Conference 2020
June 15-18, 2020, Orlando Florida, USA

XIX International Conference on Neutrinos Physics and Astrophysics
June 21-27, 2020, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Applied Superconductivity Conference 2020
June 28-July 3, Tampa, Florida, USA

Find more events on our website.
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